Kültür-davranış-mekan etkileşiminin saptanmasında kullanılabilecek bir yöntem
Type : PhD dissertation
Publication Status : Published
Access : restrictedAccess
Tezin amacı, kullanıcı grubu belirli konut tasarımında kültür ve mekân arasındaki ilişkiyi davranış yoluyla açıklamak jve konut tasarımına veri oluşturacak ilkelerin saptanmasında, KÜLTÜR-DAVRANIŞ-MEKAN ilişkisini kuracak bir analiz yönte mi geliştirmektir. Ayrıca, bu tezde, çevre -davranış çalış - malarının mimari tasarımdaki önemini ortaya koymak; fizik sel çevreyi biçimlendirmede kültürel faktörlerin etkinli - ğini vurgulamak ve konutun kültürel bir ürün ve disipliner bir kavram olduğunu belirtmek hedeflenmektedir. Altı bölümden oluşan çalışmanın giriş bölümü olan 1. bölüm de, belirlenen amaçlar doğrultusunda tezin genel olarak konu alanı ve kapsamı tanımlanmıştır.Tezin 2. bölümünde ise Çevre -davranış çalışmalarındaki teoriler, modeller, yöntem ve teknikler ele alınarak, tezin kavramsal çerçevesini o - luşturacak yaklaşımlar incelenmiştir. Konut ve kültür ça - lışmalarmın tek bir teori ya da yaklaşıma dayandırılması nın yetersizliği görüşünden yola çıkılarak? tez problema - tiğinin oluşturulmasında entegre olarak kullanılabilecek model ve yaklaşımlar belirlenmiştir. 3. bölümde, tez çalışmasının kavramsal çerçevesi tanımlana rak, sistemi oluşturan bileşenler arası etkileşim şeması oluşturulmuştur. Nesnel çevre, kültür ve psikolojik süreç leri içeren sistem bileşenleri çözümlenerek; kavramsal, davranışsal ve nesnel çevreden oluşan çevre settingi; kül tür bileşenleri,' bilişim süreci ve davranışsal süreçten oluşan psikolojik süreçler; etkileşim sistemini oluşturan temel öğeler olarak belirlenmiştir. Tezin 4. bölümünde ise, kuramsal olarak ortaya konulan bu etkileşim sisteminin pratikte uygulanabilmesi için, tasa - rım ilkelerinin saptanmasında kullanılabilecek bir analiz yöntemi oluşturulmaya çalışılmıştır.üç adımdan oluşan yön tem içinde bir model olarak simule edilen çevre settingi- nin Normatif, Bilişsel-Davranışsal, Nesnel Çevre analiz - leri ile,Kültür-Davranış-Mekan arasındaki etkileşim sis - teminin ilke düzeyinde temelleri ortaya çıkartılmaya çalışılmıştır. Geliştirilen bu yöntemin sınanması amacıyla 5.bölümde, Ma latya Geleneksel Türk Evleri üzerinde yapılan uygulama çalışmaları sonunda; kültür bileşenlerinin çevre settin - gindeki görünümleri olan: NORMATİF KÜLTÜR DEĞERLERİ, MAH REMİYET, KİŞİSEL MEKAN, EGEMENLİK SINIRI VE DAVRANIŞLARI kavramlarının, tasarıma yansıyan sosyo-kültürel ve psiko lojik veriler olduğu doğrulanmıştır. Son bölüm olan 6.bö lümde ise tezin amaçlarının ne derece gerçekleştirildiği irdelenmiştir.The main purpose of the architectural design is to create suitable environments for their users and to form healty Behaviour-Environment Interaction Systems. Therefore in recent decades the relationship between human behaviour and the physical environment has attracted researchers from environmental design disciplines besides social sciences. With its multidisciplinary characteristics and application potentials into real world problems, environ mental design studies have an important influence on the progress of this area. Although the study of environment and behaviour has become popular in the last twenty years; very little attention has been given to cultural factors in orientations to the physical environment. This was the major gap in research on environment and behaviour. On the other hand, in Turkey the accepted concepts of development are strongly related to industrialization and based on applications of western (American or European) socio- cultural patterns. Housing in this context, tends to be defined as a consumer good with little regard to behaviour, custom or tradition. Therefore architectural products prepared for western culture.including housing patterns are applied to Turkish community. As a result of these policies and practices, the harmonious environment of the traditional Turkish community and the over centuries lasted matching between physical and cultural settings had disappeared. Basing on these arguments; the aims of this thesis had been determined as;. to explore the relationship between culture and spatial settings of the house;. to develop an analitic method for the determination of transactional effects among culture-behaviour-space interactions in user-specific environments;. to show the significance of Environment-Behaviour Studies in the architectural design;. to emphasize the effect of cultural factors on the formation of physical environments; xi to determine the Home Environment as a cultural product and a disciplineer concept. The thesis consists of six chapters. In the first chapter, the main content and its linkages with the conceptual framework had been introduced in relation with Environment-Behaviour Studies as the research area. The general concept of the theory in the Environment- Behaviour Studies had been described with its main characteristics, in the second chapter, in order to systematize the problem area of the thesis. The theoreti cal orientations, explanatory theories, conceptual frame works and models are explored by examples in four categories of the theoretical development. The models in the Environment and Behaviour Studies are briefly summarized and discussed with their effects on the conceptual framework of this thesis. The subject matter of the thesis has been focused on micro and mezzo scales of housing environment. Therefore housing studies related to man- environment interactions and the approaches applied upon these problems had been analysed in detail. As a consequence of this analysis it has been derived out that the theoretical approaches are overlapping each other and basing on several models aswell. Especially the complex structure of housing has an impact on these interactions within the culture-home environment studies. The inadequacy of the studies based on only one theory or theoretical approach leads to a multidimensional structure basing on antropological, historical, socio- psychological and transactional framework for determining of the conceptual structure of the thesis. In this content; - Ecological Models: which consider the relationship between environment and behaviour within an holistic approach and apply anthropological and socio-psycholo- gical techniques upon Culture-Behaviour-Space interac tion systems; - Socio-Cultural Models; which are based on cultural factors in the design and use of home environments; xxi - Perception and Cognition Based Models; which consider cultural effects upon environmental perception and provide the analysis of interactions between Culture and BehaviourJ had been determined as suitable models for defining the problem area of the thesis. In the third chapter, the conceptual framework of the thesis had been developed and system components and the linkages among them had been emphasized. The main dimen sions of this man-home environment interaction system had been considered as; ENVIRONMENT, CULTURE and BEHAVIOUR. The multidimensional pattern built by these system elements and the interactions among them had been explored by behavioral, cognitive and normative analysis, As a consequence of this approach the main features of the interaction system had been specified as - Environmental Setting; consisting of conceptual, behavioural and physical environments, - Cultural Components; - Psychological Processes; consisting of cognitive and behavioral processes. This systematic approach seems as an useful and explicit mean enabling easier analysis on very complex structures of man-environment interaction systems. The main and. specific aim of this thesis had been deter - mined in the former chapters, as; reflecting the theori - ticaly set interaction systems into the design processes for their applications upon practical environmental design problems. Therefore an analitic method had been developed in the fourth chapter to determine the design principles. The method consists of three stages. The first stage covers the definition of the "Culture- Behaviour- Space Interaction System" by analysing cognitive-behavioural and nornative interrelations; basing on the conceptual framework developed in the third chapter. In this analysis the cultural, psychological and spatial components of the system are considered with their features in existing real environmental settings. In the second stage the system elements are determined for simulating the interaction system based on the environmental setting. The third stage consists of a model, developed for the determination of concepts, effecting the formation environmental setting and its properties. xm In this model, the normative, cognitive - behavioral and quantitative analysis of environmental settings are made in an holistic approach and the fundamental patterns of the Culture - Behaviour - Environment Interactions Systems are explored. The purpose of this trial can be summarized as; - gathering data for environmental design studies, - exploring supplementary concepts for increasing design quality. This last stage of the method covers the suitable research techniques for gathering data as well. The method proposes an holistic way of analysing data for developing the principles to be applied in new design problems of home environments. The fifth chapter of the thesis consists of a field study held on traditional Turkish Houses in Malatya region for testing the validity of the method developed by this study. As a result of this examination? it had been verified that, - normative cultural values, - privacy, - personal space, - territoriality are the most important socio-cultural and psychological data reflecting into the design of home environment. In the first section of this chapter, the reasons for selecting traditonal Turkish house as the research focus and Malatya region as the sumpling area had been explained and discussed. In the next step the suitable research techniques had been determined for the analysis provised by the model. These techniques had been taken account in qualitative and quantitative categories. The 41 samples of the case-study had been analysed by historical and ethnographical research methods for gathering data on environmental settings. The data obtained by normative; cognitive - behavioural and quantitative analysis of environmental settings, had been concluded and evaluated by statistical comparisons. In the last chapter it had been investigated whether the thesis reached to its aims and targets and in which level of realization. As clearly seen in comparisons and xiv evaluations, the development of a method for deriving planning and design principles out of environmental - socio-cultural-and psychological data would be an obligation. In sum, this thesis is a result of trials for analysing complex man -environment interactions and Sox designing home environments matching human behaviour. The method developed by this thesis is given in the following table.
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